The slicer is a beneficial instrument to cut into thin slices not only meats and cheeses, but also bread, vegetables, and fruit everything effortlessly, very quickly and in a far more natural way, compared to a knife.
Choosing the best domestic or semi-experienced slicer isn’t easy. The solution may not be unique. In space, budget, and various factors, it can be summarized depending on the clicker’s planned use. You have to ask yourself questions before making your decision: how much do I want to spend? How can I use that usually? Can I have a meat cut or even fruit, vegetables and bread?
You can find many complete reviews on the slicers manufactured from the leading brands on this website. We have, however, written this article for those who do not want to waste time. Here you can find, in short, our opinion on the best slicers for meat.
Best Meat Slicer Buy In 2020
To be a chef: The food slicer cuts the food precisely, it makes you like a GOOD chef at home. Adjustable Thickness from super slender to approximately 3/4” Thick for cutting various of food, for example, meat, store, cheddar, roast beef, turkey Breast, vegetables and natural products.
Easy to clean: seamless and removable features make sanitation a breeze. Our removable ring-guard spread forestalls flotsam and jetsam development on cutting surfaces. The blade, food carriage, slide-pole augmentation and food pusher are removable, it allows for careful cleaning and sanitation.
Safety protection: to operate the shop slicer, you should press both the safety lock and force button simultaneously to start, avoid the mistake operation. Non-slip suction cup feet keeps the meat slicer stable during working.
Universal stainless steel blade: ostba meat slicer machine has the 7. 5” stainless steel serrated blade, driven by 150 watts of fast, high return cutting force, It will assist you with keeping a steady sharp cut.
Commitment – ostba is the main authorized online Seller of ostba items. We are focused on giving customers a distressing free shopping experience. Purchase with Confidence, We are always here to help.
7.5” Sharp Stainless Steel Blade:
Thin, chewy jerky or thick, crisp, smoked bacon are just a slice away with the Ostba Meat Slicer. Slice salami, steaks, turkey bosom or meat for jerky effectively and advantageously in your own kitchen.
Regardless of whether you need shop thin meats or thick half-inch ham slices, this reduced slicer will perform.
Sharp , driven by 200 watts of quick, high return cutting force, will assist you with keeping a reliable sharp cut.
Child Lock Protection Switches: To guarantee the maximum wellbeing for you and your family, the nourishment slicer is furnished with the child lock protection switch, you have to push down the security lock and force button together to turn it on.
Various Thickness Knob: 0-15mm adjustable thickness, and the meat slicer has the tick imprint to show the precise thickness, it’s perfect to slice sooo much nourishment, for example, bread, cheddar, meat ,shop, ham, and so forth. Make the most of your cooking time.
Removable Slide-pole Extension: In the wake of checking the client request, we update the structure of nourishment carriage for simple cleaning, the side-bar augmentation can be expelled to clean the each corner helpfully.
Solid Suction Rubber Feet: The cutting machine has 4 elastic feet in the base, it keeps the store slicer stable while working, it would be ideal if you have confidence to utilize it.
How to Choose the Best Slicer?
The slicer is the delicacy of the appliance par excellence. It used for meat and cold cuts. Of course, it will also be a small tool for home use. But how does that work? Easily by buying a little slicer for home use, but similar to those in the professional sector. The electric meat grinder often supports this appliance at home for the most demanding users in the butcher’s department.
If you always have cold cuts on your table for lunch and dinner, it might be for you. Cold cuts are certainly not recommended, especially in the summer, with high temperatures and hot weather. If you buy a couple of ham or something similar, it’s not the same characteristics, the same fragrance once placed on the table.
In short, when cutting the cured meat, it initially lost its qualities. It’s all another story in winter. In the refrigerator, cold cuts are better preserved. But in any case, the slicer is helpful. It allows you to save money economically by buying different cold cuts that you usually consume. It’s certainly more tasteful than a cut and placed a few hours in the fridge to taste a slice of freshly sliced ham. And it’s also used to cut meat accurately. You did a roast, and you didn’t know how to cut it? You have the slicer.
Or rather, the meat will be poorly cut if you do this in slices with an ordinary kitchen knife. With an electric razor, things will improve, but the level of accuracy, power, and safety of an electric slicer is not yet guaranteed. These issues will be resolved using this appliance. Your guests can present a freshly cut chicken appetizer and perfectly cut roasting.
But how many kinds are there? First quote: We are taking the order
#Manual flywheel slicer
Currently useful, in case it goes off current, but not comfortable, as more technological models are born. It used a lot for the traders’ professional method.
The automatic slicer is used in the city’s delicacies, but also in restaurants, shopping malls and all the places they need to use. Automation must work correctly with this type of machine, thus providing more excellent safety not only in results but also in their use.
In this case, contrary to the kind described above, the salami slice or meat slice must be placed on the slicer tray by the user of the appliance, always accompanied by a unique accessory.
# Gravity slicer
They have the inclined support surface, allowing the meats to fall directly on the tray, but above all the meat. Remember that there are significant differences between professional and more “commercial” types. Buy a model that fits your needs if you need it for home use.
The type of cut :
What are you most likely to find yourself slicing? The solution to this question determines the type of appliance you will need to buy. The wealth of the supply allows you to choose economic models, medium or high.
The low-priced slicer area unit made of plastic and with a small blade and area unit perfect. If you want to cut bread, fruit, and vegetables, choosing a slice of this type also has an impact on the house. Therefore, a perfect choice for those who have a small kitchen.
On the other hand, if your cutting needs are higher (without leading to semi-professional). You will choose mid-range models, lots of resistance, stability and equipped with larger blades and therefore more suitable for cutting a wide range of foods. Also, in this case, the price to pay is connected to the solidity of some elements because it may still be the plastic that has the upper hand over the metal to contain costs.
Metal is the dominant material in the best brand models, perfect for every type of cut, carefully assembled, and to last over the years. In this case, the only part to consider is the selling price, much more compared to the other models.
In the case of electric slicers, it is necessary to evaluate the power of the engine on which consumption depends. But also the type of food that can slice and how long the appliance will be kept running.
The higher the engine power, the higher the force with which the blade turns, which is therefore ready to cut various kinds of food, from cold cuts to hard bread. Also, a slicer with a powerful motor is easier to use because it cuts with little effort and quickly and can be used for a long time, up to 20 consecutive minutes, without overheating.
But not only meat and cheese, but also bread, vegetables, and fruit. The slicer can be a handy tool in everyday life. Because, it allows us to cut a large quantity of food quickly, without effort, and with definitely greater precision than any knife, moreover, contrary to what one might imagine. It is not a product designed solely for those who have a restaurant business, indeed: for some years now. Domestic slicers have become more widespread, and on the market, an excellent variety of models can be found, from professional models to those for personal use. Therefore, before proceeding with the purchase, it is necessary to be aware of both the product and our manual.
A first step is our familiarity with this instrument as two-slice categories are available: manual or flywheel, electrical, and, based on our manual skills, we can restrict field, limit, and manual. A preliminary evaluation should be carried out to provide detailed information on five factors that we feel are important in choosing a slicer.
Let’s see what the differences between the two slicers are:
Flywheel slicers: Manual slicers have the advantage of being less intense electricity. The manual slicers are more environmentally friendly than electric slicers. They are equipped with a knob wheel to be operated manually, called a flywheel, and the cutting speed can be adjusted through that. Furthermore, they need specific expertise to be able to calibrate the right force to be applied to the blade according to the type of product we want to cut. For this reason, manual slicers are mainly for professional use.
Electric Slicers: The vast majority of slicers designed for domestic use are electric slicers. For this reason, they are equipped with a motor and a plug to fit the current. Besides larger flywheel models, there are also tiny and light models of this type. It will affect the electricity bill, albeit minimally. However, at the same time, they are much more intuitive to use and do not need unique previous information or manual skills for their use. But since the blade automatically turns. It is essential. And we will see later that they are equipped with safety systems to ensure that the machine stops immediately and entirely in the event of an accident.
Electric Slicer: the Engine
Here, we are dedicated to electric slicers because they are more stable and easier to use for everyday use. How long can the machine be used continuously? For this reason, the engine power is one of the first factors to take into consideration for the selection of a slicer.
The powerful the engine is, the higher its strength is, the more meat, cheeses, and vegetables we can cut into the blade. The cutting operation will also be less “treaty,” so the engine will be less likely to overheat problems.
A domestic slicer can generally be used for some time starting from 5 to 20 minutes without interruption, after which the motor must be switched off and left to cool completely before returning to operation. Some models also mount a fan to overcome this problem, which cools the engine and makes the slicer more usable.
To give an idea of the figures we are talking about, we can thus classify the power of a slicer’s motor:
- Low power: between 50 W and 100 W
- Average power: between 100 W and 140 W
- High strength: between 140 W and 400
Since slicing is the typical job for a slicer. For this purpose, it is essential to have a suitable edge in a slicer. It is this fact that tells us how big and how thin the slicer can slice. Not only vegetables but also bread and cold cuts a slicer can slice. So let’s see what the aspects to evaluate are.
The diameter of the blade gives us information about the size of the foods that we can cut. For example, if it’ll be possible to cut a form of mortadella into circular slices. Or if our slicer will be able to cut only the salami slices. Also, the size of the blade must be adequate to the power of the engine. Otherwise, we will have a machine that overheats too quickly or an extremely powerful slicer that can only cut tiny slices.
The blades for slicers for domestic use have a diameter that can vary from 17 to 30 cm. But most of these edges with a diameter ranging from 22 to 27 cm.
Cut thickness :
A knob regulates the width of the slices. For this, the circular blade can be distanced from the sailor The corrugated wall on which the product slips before the actual blade comes into contact. After that, there will be a gap between the blade and the soul where the product will push. And the width of this crack determines the thickness of the slice cut.
The cut slices will have a maximum thickness of 20 mm; only a few professional slicers will go beyond this dimension. Cutting thickness of more than 15 mm for domestic slicers.
Just like a serrated blade knife, it is perfect for cutting bread, but it is not suitable for meat, even for a slicer the same problem arises.
Before proceeding with the purchase, we should think about what type of products we want to use. If we are looking for a machine with which to cut vegetables and bread every day, then a wavy blade will be perfect for our needs.
If instead, we want a slicer to enjoy the freshly sliced ham, then it will be necessary to buy a model with a smooth blade.
We always keep in mind also the diameter of the blade. The larger diameter is used to cut large forms of hams mainly. So that a model should have a knife with a diameter greater than 23 mm, but with a curved profile would be inadvisable.
We point out that some models already have a double blade, smooth and waver for perfect cutting with any food type.
It is necessary to evaluate the engine, blade, and structure. Consider in particular:
The footprint is dependent on the appliance size. Home slicers usually have small scales that allow you to position them in the kitchen cabinet without too much difficulty. Weight is also significant, especially if you want to frequently move the slicer and put it away after every use. Keep in mind; however, a small and light slicer may also have a blade of less than 20 mm in diameter. So you won’t be able to use it to slice large cured meats.
Trolley, that’s the sliding plate on which the food to be sliced rests. During this case, you want to take into account not only the size of the cart but also the stroke, that is, the horizontal scroll area. An excellent slicer should have a stroke of at least 5-10 mm larger than the blade diameter, to cut even slightly larger foods than the plate.
Additional accessories can improve the performance of the slicer. Usually, only the most expensive appliances are equipped with other components, including the presser to keep the product sliced. The tray to collect the cut slices, and the sharpener to sharpen the blade periodically.
Both the blade and the structure come into play with the material factor. It is essential for the edge to be stainless steel, stainless, and sharpened quickly.
The choice of materials is more extensive as far as the structure is concerned, but it can also greatly influence the slicer’s final cost.
The materials used mainly for the structure of the slicer are plastic and aluminum molten. The first is often used on smaller than 22 cm blade slicers. Because they are the ones to be used every day, taking up little space in the kitchen and being easily moved. The plastic comes in handy in this case because it is also lighter in addition to being cheaper than aluminum.
The plastic used is often white, however, which has the disadvantage of yellowing over time, giving the impression that the product is of poor quality and unhygienic as well.
Even when it comes to price and performance, the design becomes more refined. And molten aluminum is the most frequently used material, often lacquered, even in different color shades. Also, the slicer is often considered a piece of furniture. Even the design is taken care of down to the details.
Although the choice of material depends heavily on our needs. In this case, a well-designed design does indeed have its visual impact, and some manufacturers do choose to use plastic. But they take care of the details so that their products look as much as possible like luxury items.
The appliance is usually guaranteed by law for a few years. Remember to keep the receipt and the instruction booklet where you will find it to be used correctly. The warranty does not cover the electrical parts but includes any mechanical defects. The addresses related to the approved technicians for repairs can be found at the bottom of the booklet or in any case in a separate booklet.
Buying a professional slicer for home use is not necessary. But you’re going to have to make sure the model you’re buying has some basic features. Begin with the bulk. Keep in mind that you should buy a machine of modest size for home use, wherever you are not going to use it daily for 365 days a year. An eye on where you’re installing it, too.
While the commercial slicers are designed to do their job and just that, there are a whole series of other devices for the high-level ones. For example, we have the pusher, the sharpener, and the built-in tray. Let’s look at what it is:
Meat press: It is a tool that places sharp teeth to keep the product still and dedicated to the blade. It can either be in the form of arm and this case. It tends to hold the product from above. It consists of a dented partition parallel to the sail whose distance from the blade is adjusted manually and reduced as and when the product is slice. The meat presser arm is usually found on the most expensive slicers. While the bulkhead press, also known as product pushers, can be found more easily on lower price ranges.
Sharpener: Often absent in low-end slicers, where the blade is recessed in the sail and has no protruding surface. The sharpener is the best tool to sharpen the edge quickly, so it is always as sharp as the first day. It can be fixed or removable and can be purchased separately for some models and subsequently placed.
Tray: This too is not a common element, but in the commercial slicers, unlike the first two, it is easier to find it. It is a tray on the back of the machine that collects the cut slices. Some models, especially gravity ones, have a special compartment in the back or in the lower part of the structure where a serving plate can be placed although they do not have a tray.
Standards of safety
It’s a good idea to look at the security systems that characterize it when choosing to buy a slicer, whether it’s professional or home-made. If we assume as a particular fact that all machinery of this type must have an effective system of control and safety, we understand how these become of fundamental importance in the case of slicers.
Regardless of the quality or price range in which it is placed, an excellent slicer has to boast directly on the ignition of a safety system. Considered a real block, in the case of rash and sudden movements and the presence of children, it turns out to be extremely useful.
Other fundamental aspects are those of the finger guard and the “blade server,” the first ideal for protecting the fingers while slicing food and avoiding irreparable external damage to the blade. Besides, the most modern professional slicers are equipped with an excellent sharpener. That enables the blade to be sharpened at all times, making the perfect cut and clean even after long periods of use.
The slicer requires cleaning at the end of each use as an object that comes into contact with food.
A slicer’s cleaning isn’t complicated, but it takes some care not to cut or hurt yourself. Many manufacturers adopt small tricks to simplify this operation, first of all, the possibility of coming down the trolley to clean the sail and the blade easier. Even attention to design can be an essential detail. The absence of sharp edges prevents corners or cracks from being created where dirt is harder to remove, and scratches or cuts can be obtained during cleaning.
Last but not least, safety is paramount: dealing with an electric slicer means dealing with a machine with a blade connected to an engine, which is potentially very dangerous.
That is why it is good to check that the slicer meets European Union safety standards. There are many types of certificates, and the more documents a slicer or his manufacturer has, the more confidence we can have in his actual security.
The main symbol to which we must pay attention in this regard is the CE (pictured side by side), which indicates the declaration of the consequence of EEC Directive 89/392.
In addition to the certificates, the presence of a blade guard and safety buttons are other safety features. The first is only present on machines where the blade is not embedded in the sail and is used to cover the protruding cutting surfaces to avoid the risk of accidental cutting.
The second one can be more than one and can have different functions. Some block the blade’s rotation if pressed immediately, while others stick it if released. So you have to keep them always pushed until the end of use to keep the machine running.
If the blade is not inserted correctly or if the sliding carriage is locked, other systems still prevent the slicer from being used. Some are more comfortable than others, and some slicers only have one and others more than one. But the primary thing is they are present to ensure safe and peaceful use.
Other factors to remember when choosing a slicer
Are the materials important?
We’re interested in reaffirming how effectively these can make the difference in the materials we’ve already talked about in a slicer. Make sure that the blade is made of stainless steel, safe equipment for precise cutting, and excellent durability. As far as the structure is concerned, it depends a lot on the use you want to make of the slicer and on your aesthetic sense. A plastic slicer will be lighter and easier to transport, while a lacquered aluminum slicer will have a much higher aesthetic impact and will not look out of place.
Is it essential to the brand?
There’s no doubt in the case of slicers, the brand is essential. A well-known or active manufacturer will be able to more easily guarantee higher safety standards that are essential in choosing the model, as we have seen.
Therefore it is not advisable to rely on manufacturers who do not have visible assistance numbers or warranty certificates in evidence. Usually, the industry’s leading brands also have excellent after-sales support services. So it will be easier to contact them if you need clarification on the use of the slicer or find spare parts. We remember RGV, Bosch, and Berkley among the most popular brands on the market. The latter has the honor of inventing the slicing machine and remains one of the industry’s leading brands today.
Is the price an important one?
A slicer’s price can vary from around 30 for the cheapest, from professional ones up to over thirty thousand. Fortunately, domestic slicer prices are much lower, but essential figures can still be reached. To simplify this, we say that the cost of a slicer from $30 upwards up to $100 is economical, while the price range from $400 upwards is already high. What determines the price most is the size of the blade because it requires adjustment of the size of all the other components.
In this case, the individual needs and use of the slicer will, therefore, be significant if the intention is to have a machine that can quickly cut down several types of medium-sized products. Then we can orientate ourselves to a low price range. But instead, slice large quantities or large products like hams on the whole. We will have to take into account that it is essential for us.
How to Use a Slicer
Slicers can be seen in groceries and supermarkets, products with a large blade to be cut precisely and quickly according to the chosen template. Tasting smart slices, personally cut if needed, is no longer a privilege for many because cheap slicers can be purchased for kitchen and any home installation.
Why buy it?
You can choose between different kinds of models depending on your requirements. However, it is essential to ask what will be influenced and how often it will be used before purchasing such a product. Therefore, if it has not been used for weeks, it could be a waste of cash that can be avoided.
If on the other side, you plan to use it every day, you should first ensure that it is fitted with a rust-resistant and long-lasting stainless steel blade.
Safety is not too much to be sharp products. The ignition lock systems should be up to speed, and accidental hand contact should also be prevented.
These tools were once the prerogative of groceries in the neighborhood and did not have many frills, so injuries were the order of the day. It’s not tempting to lose your fingers to enjoy a slice of ham, so don’t save on your safety.
Read the Manual
Moving on to the actual usage, you have to begin from the manual of guidelines. You often choose to skip this step and straight use the new instruments to see them in action. Therefore, it is advisable to assess the differences by learning directions to prevent accidents of different types.
Adjust the Thickness
Using a unique knob that you can usually find in front of the slicer, you will change the width after reading the directions. You will have to choose a suitable thickness depending on the item to be sliced. For example, as for the ham, experts say the slices should be as thin as a sheet of paper to be able to taste it in the best possible way. However, about bread, although it is strictly subjective, each slice should be at least one centimeter dense.
Once you know the knob, you can easily adjust it to the item to be sliced.
Place a cut
Confirm that you place a plate or chopping board on the side from which the slices fall before slicing. So you will avoid dropping them onto the workshop which can not be highly clean.
Therefore, when you bought an automatic model, the time has come to connect the socket to the electrical current. Use one hand in the back to grasp the salami, keep the limb away from the blade, squeeze it with the assistance. You can go back and repeat the process until you need it once the slice has been cut.
How to Clean a Slicer
It is essential to keep a slicer clean to avoid bacteria from growing and possible food poisoning. Professional slicers cut in a multitude of distinct thicknesses ham, meat, and cheese very quickly.
Home slicers are very comparable to professional slicers, but smaller is their blades. At the end of each use, both must be punished.
With an accidental cut induced by the blade, both professional and domestic slicers can cause severe hand injuries. When using and cleaning a slicer, be sure to wear cut-resistant gloves. Follow in the manual the manufacturer’s particular instructions.
Remove crumbs and food residues
Cutting the meat causes the loss of small pieces of food particles that accumulate in each corner of the machine at the bottom of the slicer. Using a robust brush is the simplest way to remove them. Pay special attention to regions near the blade where tiny scales fall into the cracks.
Water and soap
Then take a bucket and fill it with soap, water, and dish. Put on a couple of gloves and plunge into a sponge with an abrasive side and clean the machine thoroughly. Use the sponge’s harsh side to remove any other pieces of meat. To remove any soap residue, rinse the machine with hot water. You have to rinse very thoroughly to avoid eating soap as quickly as you slice food.
Water and alcohol
I recommend buying (you can find it in the supermarket) ethyl alcohol for those who don’t want to use soap. You can use 5% alcohol and the rest of the water. You are not going to risk eating soup in the first slice with this alternative, but you are going to consume edible substances. Most ethanol is evaporating.
Remove it if necessary
If you’ve purchased a used slicer or had little care over time, you’ll need to separate it and carefully clean it up. There are not many parts that need to be disassembled but do this methodically so that nothing can be forgotten. Reassemble it after cleaning and ensure that all sections are correctly placed.
Replace any worn parts
Professional slicers need a thorough check, mainly if they are used for many hours in the gastronomy department. Continuous use may have led to the wear of any parts of the device, and visual inspection may cause one or more components to be found to modify. The blade must be substituted on this slicer, particularly if we notice any bevels.
How to Sharpen a Slicer Blade
It’s time to sharpen the blade when you start noticing that your slicer doesn’t bend as well as when you purchased it, and the meat is drawn and not cut. The absence of spinning can be seen when the blade becomes opaque, and the cut is no longer uniform.
How to sharpen the blade of the slicer depends on the slicer type you have.
Some slicers have incorporated in the stone to sharpen the blade, while others have to grind.
Below are some tips to follow, but always follow the instructions given by the manufacturer of your slicer.
- Turn off the slicer and disconnect it from the power supply.
- Remove the blade cover
- Clean the blade with a soft cloth and a non-aggressive detergent such as dish soap and water.
- Apply edible oil or sharpening oil on the blade.
- Place the sharpening stone near the edge of the blade according to the manufacturer’s instructions (it must be positioned at a correct level so as not to damage the knife!)
- Attach the slicer to the socket and turn it on. Let the sword be sharpened by the stone for 1 minute or 2 then turn off the slicer and check the spinning of the blade. If it is still opaque, repeat the process.
- Once the process is complete, reposition the blade cover in its original place and clean the blade before using it.
Useful Tips for Buying Meat Slicer
As we have repeated many times in these tips pages, it is never an easy thing to buy an appliance. It is because you find yourself in a wide choice when you enter a store.
I think it’s always better to spend some extra money, if possible. As a semi-professional slicer, it is often better to move towards buying a robust and effective model in the cut. Now at reasonably low prices, there are many models.
Even if you probably use it very little in this case, you will always have a machine that will hardly create problems for you. If you need to make it work a little more than usual in some unexpected situations, you won’t have to worry about it.
Now let’s see some tips to consider for a slicer once shopping.
Firstly, we verify that all the safety devices required by European law are provided for the slicer we are going to buy. Check that the slicer has a CE mark and that it is easy to handle (the sample displayed on the shelves can be used for this).
You will need a slicer with a rather large blade, 27.5 or 30 cm in diameter if you have to cut large meats like hams. An edge of 22/25 cm is sufficient for regular use.
Buy a slicer with a well-known brand if possible so that in case of the failure, you don’t have issues. It should be easy to find the service center and any spare components. I remind you that there are two years of appliance warranty.
If you are looking for a semi-professional model, check the energy of the engine that should be upwards from 140 Watts. The more massive a slicer is, the more stable it is, and the weight is synonymous with strength, even the mass has its significance.
It would be a good idea to check at the time of purchase that the slicer is easy to clean. Above all, the blade that requires to be washed very often should be merely removable (the handles of the slicers are acutely sharp to be careful not to cut).
If the slicer can be useful for you for any purpose of selling, I recommend you do so before proceeding with the purchase. Use the internet to read reviews from those who have already bought the model. In this way, you will know if a specific slicer has specific issues.
You can also use the Internet to check the price of the slicer we saw in a store. It often happens that lower prices are found on the net compared to stores, and online purchases should, therefore, also be taken into consideration.
As we have seen, it is not simple to make the correct considerations before you buy a slicer. There are so many models and various price ranges, with multiple opportunities and options, of course. If you have insufficient space and don’t want to spend much. The best advice is to look for a mid-range or low-end product but doesn’t expect to be able to slice seasoned hams or the like. Too often, the company is challenging, and one is disappointed, the only solution is to invest a few more if you are looking for a real slicer. We inform you in our reviews not only the practical test but also the design integrity and other functions such as safety or cleanliness.